One thing has already been stated in a earlier chapter about our excavations within the Bronze Age ranges at Beycesultan. We’ve got described one enormous, “half-timber” constructing; a residential palace over 2 hundred ft sq. and administrative buildings protecting an space of virtually two and 1 / 4 acres, which we took to show that in reality, throughout the Center Bronze Age, the walled metropolis at Beycesultan was a state capital of Arzawa. However what’s extra related for the second to the facet of mound excavation which we’re contemplating is the style during which we contrived to make this mound a stratigraphical key to the entire prehistory of western Anatolia. For, beneath the Center Bronze Age public buildings we reduce a large sounding by way of the sooner occupations right down to an earliest settlement on the clear earth beneath.
As we descended stage by stage, one noticed how eventually the amorphous proof supplied by Mellaart’s west Anatolian survey was crystallising into an articulate sample, primarily based on this new chronological sequence. Not solely have been we figuring out successive occupations of the mound and noting their traits, however for every occupation a ready-made distribution map might now be equipped, displaying the geographical extent and character of the fabric tradition which corresponded to it. In truth one might declare that the report on this sounding is in a way distinctive.1 For, along with an unusually detailed file of the ceramic sequence all through the third and fourth millennia B.C., ten maps are printed, displaying the distribution of every class of pottery at any one of many main chronological durations.
Prehistoric sounding at Beycesultan
However this prehistoric sounding at Beycesultan can also be fascinating within the current context for the illustrations which it supplies of eccentricities in mound formation. Allow us to first contemplate the curious form into which it developed. The town seems to have stood on the crossing of an essential freeway over the Meander river; or slightly over a department of that river which is now dry. In an air-photograph the traditional river-bed can clearly be seen winding across the foot of the mound on the south-east aspect. So the hill itself, which stands seventy-five ft excessive, has two separate summits and a saddle between, over which a cart-track nonetheless passes. Our sounding at first took the type of a fifteen-foot trench reduce into the japanese flank of the west summit, dealing with in direction of the central despair. Because it grew deeper, an eastward extension was made within the type of a really slim passage by way of which the earth might be extracted in wheelbarrows.